Coprological and ultrasonographic study in dogs and sheep of a suburban community in the Estado de México in search of Echinococcus spp

Main Article Content

Ulises Rodríguez Prado
América Gutiérrez-Marín
Joel Martínez-Ocaña
Mirza Romero-Valdovinos
Angélica Olivo-Díaz
Rigoberto Hernández-Castro
Ana Flisser
Pablo Maravilla
José Juan Matínez Maya

Abstract

The study described here was performed in a suburban community of the Estado de México to Echinococcus spp, since a human case of cystic echinococcosis (CE) was identifed previously. Overall, 91% (406/446) of the houses were visited and oral informed consent was obtained from dog owners; a questionnaire related to their dogs was applied and a coprological sample was obtained. It was found that 14% of dog owners fed them with raw livestock viscera. Coprological studies showed that eggs of Ancylostoma and Toxocara were the most abundant, thus deworming was recommended to all owners. Dogs with Taenia spp eggs were treated and Taenia pisiformis adults were released, not from Echinococcus spp. Most sheep in the community were studied by ultrasound and viscera of those slaughtered, were visually inspected; confrming the absence of CE. Interestingly, although no evidences of Echinococcus spp were found in animals, an autochthonous human case of CE was detected in 2006; this, added to proper practices for maintaining the life cycle of this parasite, suggests that echinococ- cosis in Mexico has a random behavioral pattern.

Keywords: Echinococcus spp, cystic echinococcosis, intestinal parasites, dogs, ultrasound

Article Details

References

1. Rodríguez-Vívas RI, Cob G, Domínguez A. Frecuencia de parásitos gastrointestinales en animales domésticos diagnosticados en Yucatán, México. Rev Biomed 2001; 12:19-25.

2. Fernández CF, Cantó AGJ. Frecuencia de helmintos en intestinos de perros sin dueño sacrificados en la ciudad de Querétaro, Querétaro, México. Vet Méx 2002; 33:247-53.

3. Eguía-Aguilar P, Cruz-Reyes A, Martínez- Maya JJ. Ecological analysis and description of the intestinal helminths in dogs in Mexico City. Vet Parasitol 2005; 127:139-46.

4. Martínez-Maya JJ, Zúñiga AI, Jaramillo ACJ, Cárdenas LJ, Navarro FR. Caracterización epidemiológica de la equinococosis/hidatidosis en Zacatecas, México. Vet Méx 1994; 25: 231-37.

5. Rodríguez-Vivas RI, Gutierrez-Ruiz E, Bolio-González ME, Ruiz-Piña H, Ortega- Pacheco A, Reyes-Novelo E et al. An epidemiological study of intestinal parasites of dogs from Yucatan, Mexico, and their risk to public health. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2011; 11:1141-4.

6. Eckert J, Gemmell MA, Meslin FX, Pawlowski ZS. WHO/OIE Manual on Echinococcosis in Humans and Animals: A Public Health Problem of Global Concern. Paris: World Organization for Animal Health, 2001.

7. Schantz PM. Guía para el empleo de bromhidrato de arecolina en el diagnóstico de la infección por Echinococcus granulosus en el perro. Bol Chil Parasitol 1973; 28: 81-90.

8. Carmona CR, Perdomo A, Carbo C, Alvarez J, Monti R, Grauert D et al. Risk factors associated with human cystic echinococcosis in Florida, Uruguay: results of a mass screening study using ultrasound and serology. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1998; 58: 599-605.

9. Macpherson CNL, Bartholomot B, Frider B. Application of ultrasound in diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, public health and control of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. Parasitology 2003; 127: S21-S35.

10. Lahmar S, Chéhida FB, Pétavy AF, Hammou A, Lahmar J, Ghannay A et al. Ultrasonographic screening for cystic echinococcosis in sheep in Tunisia. Vet Parasitol 2007; 143: 42-9.

11. Maravilla P, Thompson RCA, Palacios R, Estcourt A, Ramirez S, Mondragón C et al. Echinococcus granulosus cattle strain identification in an autochthonous case of cystic echinococcosis in central Mexico. Act Trop 2004; 92: 231-36.

12. Mata-Miranda P, Osnaya-Palmai I, Rodríguez-Prado U, Gutiérrez-Marín A, Tawil M, Hernández-González S et al. Epidemiologic and ultrasonographic study of echinococcosis in a community in the state of Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2007; 77: 500-03.

13. Serpell J. The domestic dogs. Its evolution, behavior and interactions with people. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

14. Orihuela TA, Solano VJ. Demographics of the owned dog population in Miacatlán, Morelos, México. Anthrozoos 1995; 8: 171-75.

15. Savilla TM, Joy JE, May JD, Somerville CC. Prevalence of dog intestinal nematode parasites in south central West Virginia, USA. Vet Parasitol 2011; 178: 115-20.

16. Joffe D, Van Niekerk D, Gagné F, Gilleard J, Kutz S, Lobingier R. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and cats in Calgary, Alberta. Can Vet J 2011; 52: 1323-28.

17. Mirzaei M, Fooladi M. Prevalence of intestinal helminths in owned dogs in Kerman city, Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2012; 5: 735-37.

18. Torgerson PR, Heath DD. Transmission dynamics and control options for Echinococcus granulosus. Parasitology 2003; 127: S143-S158.

19. Budke MC, Campos PM, Wang Q, Torgerson PR. A canine purgation study and risk factor analysis for echinococcosis in a high endemic region of the Tibetan plateau. Vet Parasitol 2005; 127: 43-49.